How to Set Up an Nginx Certbot

If you are looking to automate the process of obtaining, installing, and updating TLS/SSL certificates on your web server, then Let’s Encrypt is a very useful tool. It is a certificate authority (CA) that comes packaged with a corresponding software client, Certbot, that will automatically install TLS/SSL certificates. This means that you can run encrypted HTTPS […]

I asked 12 APM companies about the future of APM, here’s what they said

Application Performance Monitoring (APM) first started in the late 1990s with companies such as Precise (acquired by Symantec, spun off and then acquired by Idera), Wily Technology (acquired by CA Technologies) and Mercury Interactive (acquired by HP Software Division). In the 2000s APM tools continued to be acquired by larger vendors. Then over the past decade, […]

IoT Security: 42 Top Internet of Things Security Solutions

After researching IoT security. I’ve decided to maintain a list of companies which offer IoT (internet of things) security tools and solutions. Feel free to share your solutions, feedback and tips for securing IoT devices. This list will continue to grow in the coming days, week, months and beyond. In the aftermath of the 2016 DDoS […]

Your Web Host Doesn’t Want You To Read This: Benchmark Your VPS

June 17th 2019: Added instructions for network speed test using speedtest-cli script. Oct 31st 2017: Also see this list of command line scripts. Nov 2nd 2016: Included quick dd commands to check cached vs uncached disk read performance. This article will highlight using the ‘dd’ Unix command for a quick benchmark of your Linux server or VPS. […]

“MySQL server has gone away” error – Solution(s)

MySQL server has gone away error means that MySQL server (mysqld) timed out and closed the connection. By default, MySQL will close connections after eight hours (28800 seconds) if nothing happens. However, in some cases your web host, DBA or app developer may have decreased this timeout setting, discussed below. MySQL server has gone away, can be […]

Replacing getty with ngetty on Debian

This article was originally posted back in October 2013. As such, I’ve updated it, since the current Debian release, Debian 9, no longer uses init, but instead uses systemd. Systemd is a system and service manager for Linux. It is the default init system for Debian since Debian 8 (Jessie).  ngetty or mingetty may be useful for […]

PHP Performance: Additional CPU cores or Faster CPU cores

  Some time ago I received an email from a client experiencing slow performance issues with a LEMP (Linux, Nginx, MySQL and PHP web server). During a full audit, I found that the server’s load average was pretty low (see above screenshot). However, the website was indeed very slow. There were some misconfigurations, but one […]

PHP-FPM tuning: Using ‘pm static’ for max performance

Lets take a very quick look at how best to setup PHP-FPM for high throughput, low latency and a more stable use of CPU and memory. By default, most setups have PHP-FPM’s PM (process manager) string set to dynamic and there’s also the common advice to use ondemand if you suffer from available memory issues. However, lets compare the two management […]

Linux Performance: Why You Should Almost Always Add Swap Space

We know that using swap space instead of RAM (memory) can severely slow down the performance of Linux. So then, one might ask, since I have more than enough memory available, wouldn’t it better to remove swap space completely? The short answer is, No. There are performance benefits when swap is enabled, even when you have more […]