last command in Linux with Examples – View history of user logins

This last command guide is a follow-up of my previous 90 Linux Commands frequently used by Linux Sysadmins article. Every week, or as time allows, I will publish articles on around 90 commands geared toward Linux sysadmins and Linux power users. Let’s continue this series with the last command. You may be working with other system administrators and developers […]

Improving OpenVPN performance and throughput

OpenVPN, Wireguard, L2TP/IPSec, SSTP, IKEv2, PPTP, or other. If you had the luxury of choosing, which of these VPN protocols would you use? Therein lies my problem. In my current use case, I must find a way to improve OpenVPN performance and throughput. You may have been following my Linux home lab build. One of […]

Replacing Cloudflare with CSF Firewall

March 8th, 2021 update: For the past year, this blog has been using Bunny CDN as a full-page caching solution. That said, I still use Cloudflare with other websites. I’m updating this guide with additional details and tips for using CSF (Config Server Firewall) to increase security with [or without] Cloudflare as a reverse proxy. […]

Is Cloudflare Argo worth it?

Cloudflare Argo reduces network latency on average by 35% and connection errors by 27%. Traditional network technologies use static routing information, which can be slower and often use congested paths. Slow loading times and connection timeouts increase the likelihood of poor user experience. The Cloudflare company routes 10% of all HTTP/HTTPS Internet traffic. This provides […]

How to install vsftpd on CentOS 8 for FTP with Security

Disclaimer: It’s strongly recommended that you use SSH and SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) instead of FTPS (FTP with Security). FTPS is now obsolete. SFTP is installed by default on Unix, Linux, and Mac systems as part of the OpenSSH package and is supported by almost all free and commercial file transfer tools. (i.e. Filezilla, Cyberduck) If for some reason you still […]

Using CentOS CR (Continuous Release) Repo

CentOS (Community Enterprise Operating System) is a Linux distribution that attempts to provide free, enterprise-class, community-supported computing platform functionally compatible with its upstream source, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). CentOS is run by volunteers who work directly with Red Hat’s RPM source files and pushing them to CentOS for release. At times the project will fall behind […]

Enable Automatic Updates – Fedora/Red Hat/CentOS + Bonus Tip

As a reminder, Red Hat Enterprise Linux is based on Fedora Linux and CentOS is a 100% compatible rebuild of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. With that out of the way, lets move on. Linux server security is crucial to Linux server administration. Part of keeping Linux servers secure, is to install security updates shortly after they […]

How to Set Up an Nginx Certbot

If you are looking to automate the process of obtaining, installing, and updating TLS/SSL certificates on your web server, then Let’s Encrypt is a very useful tool. It is a certificate authority (CA) that comes packaged with a corresponding software client, Certbot, that will automatically install TLS/SSL certificates. This means that you can run encrypted HTTPS […]

How to Convert OpenSSH keys to Putty (.ppk) on Linux

PuTTYgen is an key generator for creating SSH keys for PuTTY. PuTTYgen is comparable in certain respects to the ssh-keygen tool. PuTTYgen can be used to create public and private key pairs (in .ppk file format). In addition, PuTTYgen can also be used to convert keys to and from other formats. On Windows PuTTYGen is a graphical tool. A command-line version is available for […]

Patch a thing: Securing Internet of Things (IoT) devices

July 16th 2019 update: List of IoT (Internet of Things) security solutions Today, I spent some time researching IoT security. At the end of this post, I’ve listed companies – all of which are new to me – which offer IoT security solutions. Feel free to share your solutions, feedback and tips for securing IoT devices. […]