“MySQL server has gone away” error – Solution(s)

The MySQL server has gone away error, which means that the MySQL server (mysqld) timed out and closed the connection. By default, MySQL will close connections after eight hours (28800 seconds) if nothing happens. However, in some cases, your web host, DBA, or app developer may have decreased this timeout setting, as discussed below. MySQL […]

innodb_buffer_pool_size – MySQL Performance

In MySQL performance tuning, few variables wield as much influence as innodb_buffer_pool_size. This essential MySQL configuration parameter directly impacts the performance of InnoDB, the most commonly used storage engine in MySQL. In this second installment in our series on MySQL database performance optimization, we continue to delve into the intricate world of MySQL configuration variables by […]

Linux Commands frequently used by Linux Sysadmins – Part 5

This is the final part of the five-part series entitled: Linux Commands frequently used by Linux Sysadmins. So far, we’ve covered over 50  commands regularly used by Linux sysadmins and power users. Refer to part 1, part 2, part 3, and part 4. This article will look into another set of commands and command-line tools […]

MySQL Performance Schema

When it comes to database performance monitoring and optimization, MySQL offers a powerful tool called Performance Schema. This versatile instrument provides invaluable insights into the inner workings of your MySQL database, enabling you to fine-tune its performance for optimal efficiency. In this installment of our series on MySQL database performance optimization, we delve into the […]

90 Linux Commands frequently used by Linux Sysadmins

If you are interested in Linux commands frequently used by Linux sysadmins and power users, you’ve come to the place. I’ve published this five-part series covering commands often used by Linux sysadmins. Below, I’ve listed over 90 Linux commands with links to each of the five articles in this series – click on each subheading. […]

Could not increase number of max_open_files to more than… (Solution)

A quick solution to the warning “Could not increase number of max_open_files to more than” when starting MySQL or MariaDB. For some background, read How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables. Here’s an excerpt: “The table_open_cache and max_connections system variables affect the maximum number of files the server keeps open. If you increase one or both of […]

Linux benchmark scripts and tools

This list of Linux benchmark scripts and tools should prove helpful for quick performance checks of CPU, storage, memory, and network on Linux servers and VPS. Check each script before running from the command line. Most of these scripts will benchmark the CPU, memory, storage, and network. In most cases, the CPU Model, frequency, and […]

Your Web Host Doesn’t Want You To Read This: Benchmark Your VPS

Aug 13th, 2023: added Yet-another-bench-script benchmarking tool. Sept 27th, 2021: Added link to a great list of command-line benckmark scripts. June 17th, 2019: Added instructions for network speed test using speedtest-cli script. Nov 2nd, 2016: Included quick dd commands to check cached vs. uncached read performance. This article will highlight using the ‘dd’ Unix command […]

NGINX Reverse Proxy Metrics to Monitor

NGINX is one of the most popular web servers nowadays, especially for Linux web servers. According to nginx.com, it powers more than 400 million websites. It is, however, probably even more commonly used as a reverse proxy. Since it acts as a go-between for your application and your users, it’s important to properly monitor NGINX […]