Increase Performance and lifespan of SSDs & SD Cards

SSDs (solid-state drives) and SD (Secure Digital) cards have a limited number of writes before they wear out. To get the most out of this storage type, let’s investigate, then make a few adjustments to maximize the life of your SSDs and SD cards. Article refreshed from 6 years ago.   Using iotop to monitor and […]

Raspberry Pi Performance: Add ZRAM and these Kernel Parameters

A couple of weeks ago, I published a Pinebook Pro review article on this blog. Similar to the Pinebook Pro, the Raspberry Pi and more recently the Raspberry Pi 4, are also ARM based. I’ve applied some of the optimizations mentioned in that previous article to the Raspberry Pi 4, with good results. I wanted […]

Linux: ncdu and mc to manage large directories

Creating, modifying, and deleting files are everyday tasks performed in any operating system, even more so by Sysadmins, Developers, and Programmers. For the most part, these tasks are fast enough when managing a handful of files. However, on Linux and especially with servers, you may at some time have to manage millions or even billions […]

What is iowait and how does it affect Linux performance?

I/O wait or iowait, wait, wa, %iowait, or wait% is often displayed by command-line Linux system monitoring tools such as top, sar, atop, and others. On its own, it’s one of many performance stats that provide us with an insight into Linux system performance. I/O wait came up in a recent discussion with a new client of […]

Your Web Host Doesn’t Want You To Read This: Benchmark Your VPS

June 17th 2019: Added instructions for network speed test using speedtest-cli script. Oct 31st 2017: Also see this list of command line scripts. Nov 2nd 2016: Included quick dd commands to check cached vs uncached disk read performance. This article will highlight using the ‘dd’ Unix command for a quick benchmark of your Linux server or VPS. […]

2100 HDD0 initialization error 1

I’ve noticed an issue on a few IBM/Lenovo Thinkpads. When you install an SSD drive, a reboot or restart from the OS does not work. When you reboot, instead opening the boot partition, it throws this error:   2100 HDD0 initialization error 1 Other than avoiding reboot and using shutdown instead, the only solution I’ve found […]